Ne izgubi iz vida

PUN MESEC – 31. oktobar 2020.

Nepažnji se prepuštaju lude i neznalice,
a mudrac pažljivost k’o najveće blago čuva.

Dhammapada, 26

Lako je svakodnevni nivo jasnoće koji imamo uzeti zdravo za gotovo. I kada ne odvajamo redovno vreme za formalno vežbanje pažnje, već sama praksa pridržavanja pravila vrline može stvoriti jedan kvalitet jasnoće koji mnogima manjka. Slično kao što zdravlje možemo uzeti kao nešto što se podrazumeva, sve dok se ne razbolimo, isto tako se naviknemo na to da živimo sa dobro razvijenom svesnošću i smatramo da je to nešto sasvim uobičajeno. Buda nas savetuje da cenimo, čak da čuvamo kao svoje blago, rezultate sopstvenih dobro usmerenih napora.

Sa najboljim željama,
ađan Munindo

Proučavaj patnju

Vežba: Dok prolaziš kroz dan, obrati pažnju na fenomen patnje. Kako je otkrivaš u sebi ili u drugima? Gde je najočiglednija? Koje su njene blaže forme? A koje one intenzivnije?

PODSEĆANJE
Na prikladnim mestima postavi cedulje na kojima piše “proučavaj patnju” ili fotografije neke nesrećne osobe.

OTKRIĆA
Patnja je svuda. Vidimo je u zabrinutom izrazu lica ljudi oko nas, čujemo u njihovim glasovima, saznajemo u vestima. Kako proučavamo patnju, u stanju smo da je čujemo u našim mislima, osetimo u sopstvenom telu, opazimo na licu u ogledalu. Često ljudi ovu vežbu započinju razmišljajući o patnji u njenim ekstremnim i očiglednim oblicima, kao što je smrt nekoga koga voliš ili deca žrtve rata. Kako ovaj zadatak donosi povećanu svesnost, ljudi otkrivaju da postoji čitava lepeza patnji, od blage nervoze i nestrpljivosti do izliva besa i ogromne tuge.

Izloženi smo prizorima patnje ne samo ljudi, već i životinja. Vidimo patnju onih koje volimo i isto tako patnju stranaca na ulici. Bujica patnje uliva se u naša srca i umove putem radija, TV-a i interneta.

Postoji razlika između bola i patnje. Bol je neprijatna fizička senzacija kakvu doživljava svako ljudsko telo, zapravo telo svakog svesnog živog bića. Patnja je mentalni i emocionalni stres koji biva nadodat na te fizičke senzacije. Buda je pomno proučavao patnju tokom sedam godina i otkrio da je fizički bol neizbežan, ali ne i patnja koju dodaje um. Zapravo, to važi samo za slučaj kada imate alatke za rad sa umom i ako ih marljivo koristite.

Na primer, kada imamo glavobolju, možda kažemo sebi: “Dobro, ovo je privremena nelagoda u tom delu moga tela.”
Ili možda pomislimo: “Ovo je već drugi put ove nedelje da me boli glava”. [Dovlačimo prošlost u sadašnjost.]
“Sigurna sam da će biti još gore, baš kao što je bilo i prošli put.” [Predviđanje i možda stvaranje budućih događaja.]
“Ne mogu ovo više da podnesem.” [Ali, u stvarnosti, mogla si ranije i moći ćeš opet.]
“Šta to nije u redu sa mnom?” [Ništa. Ti si samo ljudsko biće sa telom.]
“Možda imam tumor na mozgu.” [Najverovatnije ne, ali ćeš sebi proizvesti još goru glavobolju brinući o takvoj mogućnosti.]
“Možda je to od stresa na poslu. Moj šef je nemoguć…” [Traganje za nekim koga ćeš označiti kao krivca.]

Da li naš mentalni stres pomaže da se isceli fizički bol? Ne, samo ga uvećava i produžava. Tako smo u stanju da malu fizičku nelagodu pretvorimo o okean patnje.

DUBLJE LEKCIJE
Postoji i korist od patnje. Kada nikada ne bismo osetili patnju, prolazili bismo kroz život bez ikakve motivacije za promenom. Nažalost, čini se istinitim da smo najviše motivisani za promenu onda kada smo najmanje srećni.

Ako smo u stanju da umirimo um, koji podivlja od spekulacija o raznim nesrećama, neprekidno traži koga će okriviti za našu nesreću, tada bismo bili u prilici da osetimo samo fizički aspekat toga što nazivamo “bol”. Ako ga samo tako osetimo, zapravo istražimo, uočimo sve njegove karakteristike, umesto što je “neizdrživ”, to iskustvo može postati prilično zanimljivo. Koliki je prečnik područja gde osećamo bol? Gde je tačno lociran? Koja je tekstura bola– oštar, tup, njegov intenzitet oscilira ili je ravnomeran? Kada bi imao boju, koja bi to bila? Da li se javlja i nestaje ili je stalno tu? Kada prestanu da se odupiru bolu i istražuju ga na ovaj način, ljudi obično govore o zanimljivim otkrićima. Otpor učini bol fiksiranim. Kada ne dodajemo mentalni i emocionalni stres toj jednostavnoj fizičkoj nelagodi, bol je slobodan da se menja i čak rastvori.

Patnja takođe rađa saosećanje u našem srcu. Posle prvog porođaja, u meni se isto tako rodila nova svesnost o krhkosti života i plakala sam za sve nepoznate žene širom sveta čija su deca umrla. Kada osećamo bol ili stres, to je savršeno vreme da menjamo smer naše svesnosti od ka unutra prema spolja i praktikujemo prijateljsku ljubav za sve one koji pate na isti način na koji mi patimo u ovom trenutku. Na primer, kada imamo grip, možemo reći: “Neka svima onima koji su danas ostali u krevetu zbog bolesti, poput mene, bude bolje. Neka se svi mi dobro odmorimo i brzo oporavimo”.

Na isti način na koji nam biti bolestan pomaže da više cenimo dobro zdravlje, jer postanemo svesni mnogih vrsta patnje, postajemo svesniji i onog suprotnog, niza jednostavnih izvora sreće – glatkoće dečije kože, mirisa prvih kišnih kapi na prašnjavom putu, kosih zraka sunčeve svetlosti u sobi ispunjenoj tišinom.

Zaključak: Patnja nas motiviše na promenu. Da li je ta promena pozitivna ili negativna zavisi od nas. Patnja nam takođe donosi dar empatije prema svima onima koji pate baš kao i mi.

Onlajn povlačenje

Ukoliko ste zainteresovani za onlajn meditacijsko povlačenje koje će 27-29. novembra voditi poštovani Bhikkhu Bodhi, možete se prijaviti na ovoj stranici.

Evo i poruke organizatora:

Dear Friends, Please join us Thanksgiving weekend for a Three-day at-home retreat with Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi.

The four protective meditations are a set of meditation topics designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness, mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over three days following Thanksgiving Day, from Friday morning, November 27, through Sunday afternoon, November 29, Ven. Bodhi will lead a retreat on these meditation subjects. The retreat will last each day from 6 am until 9 pm on Friday and Saturday and end at 5 pm on Sunday. You will practice at home, with guidance given over Zoom. Instructions will be given each day at 8:30 am EST, so those in other time zones can join the retreat at the equivalent time in their own time zones and still catch the morning’s instructions. The first session at 6:00 am will be simple sitting and chanting. Participation in this session is optional. 

There is no charge for the course.
Donations for the monastery are always welcome.
 

With metta,
Chuang Yen Monastery/BAUS

Budistička etika (4)

Konflikt, rat, nasilje

Mržnjom se mržnja zaista nikad ne smiruje,
mržnja se nemržnjom smiruje; to je zakon večni.
Dhammapada, 5

Budizam se generalno posmatra kao religija nenasilja i mira. To su kvaliteti koji sigurno zauzimaju ključno mesto u njegovom sistemu vrednosti. Ovo ne znači, međutim, da su budisti uvek bili miroljubivi i nema razloga za bilo kakvo idealizovanje. Kao i sve druge, i budističke zemlje imale popriličan udeo u ratovima i sukobima. Iako je, i to je zanimljivo i paradoksalno u isto vreme, teško pronaći bilo kakvu verodostojnu, „budističku“ osnovu za nasilje. Uz to, upravo budizam krije u sebi posebno bogate resurse za rešavanju sukoba. Otuda ne čudi da je budizam u vreme širenja u prvom milenijumu naše ere imao opšti humanizujući efekat na veći deo Azije. Ublažio je samovolju i okrutnost vladara, pomogao opstanak velikih carstava (na primer Kina) bez mnogo unutrašnjih sukoba, a retko je, ako je uopšte, podsticao ratove protiv ne-budista.

Prema budističkom učenju, koreni svih štetnih postupaka – pohlepa, mržnja i zabluda – posmatraju se kao koren ljudskih sukoba. Kad nas bilo koja od ovih emocija savlada, možemo pomisliti: “Ja imam moć i čak pravo da progonim druge. Oni se moraju pokoriti mojoj volji!” Često sukob nastaje iz pohlepe vezanosti za materijalne stvari: čulni užici, imovina, teritorija, bogatstvo,. Isto tako, uzroci mogu biti ekonomska dominacija ili politička moć. Buda nam ukazuje da čulni užici vode ka želji za više čulnih užitaka, što neminovno, jer su resursi ograničeni, pre ili kasnije dovodi do sukoba. Mahajanski pesnik Šantideva nam kaže: “Gde god se pojavi sukob među živim bićima, osećaj posedovanja je uzrok”.

Buda se takođe često ukazivao na poguban efekat vezivanja za spekulativna gledišta (“šikara gledišta”), dogmatska mišljenja. Čak i za ispravna gledišta! Iako mi često ne znamo, već pre verujemo da nešto jeste tačno. Tu je uzrok mnogih verskih i ideoloških ratova, krstaških ratova i džihada, krvavih revolucija i na kraju gasnih komora. Ne treba da idemo dalje od istorije XX veka da vidimo te pogubne posledice: Hitler, Staljin, Crveni Kmeri i teroristi raznih vrsta. A svi su oni duboko verovali da su u pravu i da rade dobru stvar! Ali kakvo dobro može doći da ubijanjem, sa pokušajima da fizički eliminišemo one koji ne misle ili ne izgledaju kao mi!?

I ovo je jedna važna lekcija koju bi trebalo do kraja da osvestimo i razumemo. Klica je u tom osećaju “ja”, “moje”, koji svako od nas ima. Kada se u ranom detinjstvu kristalizuje, krenemo da ga nadograđujemo u sve širim krugovima: moja porodica, moj grad, moja zemlja, moj narod, moja religija itd. A svako to “moja” je jedna linija mogućeg konflikta, jer sa druge strane je “drugi“, “stranac”, “oni”… koji se u određenim okolnostima lako pretvore u “neprijatelje”. Ovo, po meni, ne znači da treba da izbrišemo sve te kategorije, da se svedemo na nekakvu nedefinisanu jedinku. One su važan deo našeg identiteta i izvor sreće i radosti. Hoću samo da ukažem da je važno biti svestan opasnosti, da je svaka od tih linija potencijalno minsko polje i da je najbolji način da demontiramo te mine da uvek sebe podsećamo kako su i sa ove i sa one strane linije obična ljudska bića, sa svojim željama i nadama, bića potpuno ista kao i mi. Jer nije slučajno da prvi korak u propagandnom ratu koji uvek prethodi onom pravom jeste da se druga strana dehumanizuje, da se ljudi pretvore u neka niža bića, zveri, koje samo vrebaju priliku da nas zaskoče i naude nam. Tada je ne samo nužno, već i ispravno da ih eliminišemo!

Ako te neko kritikuje…
Što se tiče budističke zajednice, Buda nije nikada podsticao svoje sledbenike da osećaju bes zbog kritike ili vređanja drugih. Ako bi neko omalovažavao Budu, Dhammu ili Sanghu, učenici ne bi trebalo da se ljute, a ako ih neko pohvali, da budu ushićeni.

“Monasi, ako drugi kritikuju mene, učenje ili sanghu, ne dopustite da ogorčenje, nezadovoljstvo i neprijateljstvo prema njima osvoje vaše srce. Jer ako u takvoj situaciji postanete besni ili uznemireni, samo ćete sebi stvoriti prepreku… nećete biti u stanju da procenite jesu li njihove reči tačne ili pogrešne.

Umesto toga, treba da otkrijete šta je u toj kritici pogrešno i ukažete na to kao na pogrešno, ovim rečima: ‘Zbog toga i toga ovo je pogrešno, ovo je neistinito, nema takve stvari u nama, to se ne može naći među nama.’ (Brahmađāla sutta, DN 1.5)

Isti je savet i sa pohvalama. Ne uznosi se, već proceni jesu li te reči osnovane ili ne.

Dakle, sa svakim treba razgovarati, jer direktan kontakt je najbolji protivotrov nerazumevanju, sumnjičenju i na kraju dehumanizaciju koju sam malopre pomenuo. Razmišljajući o svemu tome, često mi je izgledalo čudno da recimo u Srbiji ne postoji bilo kakav ne dijalog, već uopšte kontakt među različitim budističkim grupama! Svako se zatvorio u svoju čauru, drži se samo svog učenja ili učitelja i ne zna skoro ništa o drugima. A Buda nam je zajednički učitelj!? Ako mi između sebe ne možemo da razgovaramo, kako ćemo razgovarati sa drugima, recimo sa pripadnicima drugih religija? Zato sam odranije imao plan, koji je nažalost mojim odsustvom odložen na najmanje dve godine, da pozovem druge grupe da se okupimo i prvo upoznamo, da razgovaramo. Kakve probleme imamo, koje uspehe. Siguran sam da možemo nešto da naučimo jedni od drugih.

Rešavanje konflikta
Što se tiče napetosti i konflikata u društvu, loš ekonomski položaj, obespravljenost, siromaštvo i glad, a onda strah od neizvesnosti preživljavanja su često među glavnim uzrocima. Kada su ljudi siromašni, takođe, raste kriminal u zemlji i opšta nesigurnost. Šta uraditi po tom pitanju? U Kūṭadanta sutti (DN 5.12) Buda prepričava koji je savet kralju Mahaviđiti dao brahman, njegov savetnik, kako da reši problem kriminala u zemlji:

‘Vaše visočanstvo, kraljevstvo je prepuno lopova, krađe su na sve strane. Razbojnici haraju po selima i gradovima, postavljaju zasede na putevima. Ako vaše visočanstvo… pomisli: “Iskoreniću ovu epidemiju lopova i razbojnika egzekucijama, zatvaranjem, konfiskacijom i progonom”, time je neće iskoreniti. Oni koji preostanu posle sveg tog ubijanja, vratiće se da ponovo haraju kraljevstvom. Umesto toga, postoji plan kojim možete potpuno iskoreniti tu epidemiju. Onima koji obrađuju zemlju i gaje stoku, neka vaše visočanstvo obezbedi seme i hranu za stoku. Onima koji trguju, neka vaše visočanstvo obezbedi pozajmice. Neka onima u državnoj upravi osigura hranu i platu. Tada ljudi, zaokupljeni svojim poslovima, neće harati kraljevstvom. Prihodi vašeg visočanstva biće veliki. Zemlja će biti mirna, bez nasilja i zločina, a srca ljudi ispunjena radošću; oni će igrati sa svojom decom i živeti u svojim kućama potpuno mirno.’

Na jednom drugom mestu u Pali kanonu, tačnije u komentaru za Dhammapadu, strofe 197-199, opisuje se kako je Buda sprečio rat između svojih sunarodnika i susednog plemena Koliya, odakle je zapravo bila njegova majka. Svađa je nastala oko vode, jer je u vreme suše reka Rohini, koja ih je razdvajala, počela da presušuje i nije bilo dovoljno vode za sve da zalivaju useve. Reč po reč, situacija se pogoršale toliko da je na obe strane pala odluka da se stvar reši ratom. U poslednjem trenutku se pojavio Buda. I pošto je komentar u pitanju, dakle nastao je koji vek posle smrti Bude, kada je legenda o njemu počela da buja nekontrolisano dodavanjem raznih čudesnih detalja, tako i u ovoj situaciji zapravo vidimo Budu kako sedi prekrštenih nogu u vazduhu, tačno na sredini reke, na čije dve obale su stajale dve vojske spremne za krvavi boj. Kada su ga videli, njegovi saplemenici Sakyani pobacaše oružje i pokloniše mu se. On ih upite oko čega je spor i oni mu objasniše.

Na to on reče:
Onda Učitelj upita kralja: “Veliki kralju, kolika je inače vrednost vode?” – “Vrlo mala, poštovani gospodine”.

“A kolika je vrednost svakog od ratnika?” – “Svaki od ratnika nema cenu.”

“Onda je zaista neprimereno da zbog malo vode hoćeš da uništiš ratnike koji nemaju cenu.”

Kralj i svi oko njega ostadoše nemi. Onda im se Učitelj ponovo obrati: “Veliki kralju, zašto tako postupaš? Da se danas nisam pojavio, ti bi napravio čitavu reku krvi. Postupio si na najgori mogući način. Živiš sa neprijateljstvom, prepustivši se pet vrsta mržnje. A ja živim bez i trunke mržnje. Ti si pogođen bolešću opasnih strasti. Ja živim bez ikakve bolesti. Živiš u groznici traganja za sve novim zadovoljstvima čula. Ja živim ne tragajući za bilo čime.”

Dakle, Buda ih kori što su zbog vode, koja ima manju vrednost, spremni da proliju krv i žrtvuju svoje živote, koji imaju neprocenjivu vrednost! Obe strane behu posramljene zbog svog slepila i brzo postigoše kompromis. Tako krvavi sukob u poslednjem trenutku bi sprečen.

Kad smo već kod Dhammapade, izdvajam još dve strofe koje su vrlo važne za našu temu:

223. Mirom bes pobedi, loše dobrim pobedi,
tvrdičluk darovima pobedi i lažova rečju istine.

103. Ako bi neko u bici pobedio hiljadu puta hiljadu ljudi,
a drugi jedino samoga sebe, ipak je ovaj drugi pobednik nad pobednicima.

Mahatma Gandi
U naše vreme, jedan od najboljih primera ovakve bitke u kojoj pre svega pobeđujemo sebe, pa onda druge, svakako predstavlja Gandi, sa svojom filozofijom i praksom nenasilnog otpora. O njemu je napisana čitava biblioteka knjiga, a ja bih preporučio da pročitate, ako već niste, njegovu knjigu Autobiografija – Priča o mojim eksperimentima sa istinom. I kod nas je prevedena. Mene je oduševila kad sam je pre mnogo godina pročitao. Verujem da će i vas.

Za ovu priliku bih se zadržao samo na kratkom odlomku iz filma “Gandi”, koji vrlo plastično opisuje način na koji se borio za jednakost Indijaca, najamnih radnika i trgovaca u okviru britanskog kolonijalnog sistema u Južnoj Africi, gde je radio kao advokat na početku svoje karijere. To je bila samo “uvertira” u borbu za nezavisnost Indije koju će povesti koju godinu kasnije.

Monasi-ratnici
Dakle, Budin stav prema nasilju je nedvosmislen. Otuda je u istoriji Indije zabeleženo da su vladari hinduisti nekada progonili budiste, ali ne i obrnuto. Ali ipak, u istoriji Azije ima slučajevi kada je budizam bio korišćen upravo za sprovođenje nasilja i u militarističke svrhe.

Jedan od takvih primera je Japan, gde je veza između budizma i države uvek bila jaka, a istorija učešća monaha u raznim sukobima, čak i između rivalskih budističkih škola, duga. Tako u feudalnom Japanu imamo sohei ili monahe-ratnike, nešto slično krstašima u Evropi koje je organizovala katolička crkva. Značaj soheia je rastao paralelno sa rastom uticaja tendai budističke škole u Japanu od X do XVII veka. Tako već u X veku imamo starešinu jednog tendai manastira kraj Kyotoa po imenu Ryōgen, koji je organizovao monahe-vojnike u borbi protiv suparničke tendai frakcije.

U Kamakura periodu (1192-1333), centralna vlast u zemlji je bila skoro potpuno nestala, a moć su imali lokalni vladari, šoguni, uz pomoć ratnika-najamnika, buši (“ratnik”) i nama poznatiji termin samuraj, što bi uprevodu značilo nešto kao bodyguard za plemiće. Eisai (1141-1215), osnivač rinzai zen škole, uživao je zaštitu šoguna u glavnom gradu Kamakuri i pomogao uspostavljanju dugotrajnog saveza između rinzaija i bušija, duboko inspirisanih zen meditacijom, samodisciplinom i indiferentnošću prema smrti. Rinzai zen monasi su počeli da podučavaju neke od buši ratnika kako da budu borci, bez straha od smrti. Ovo se može videti kao primer „prikladnog sredstva“ (upāya), dakle prilagođavanja budizma načinu života određene grupe ljudi. U ovom kratkom pregledu pomenuću još samo da su tokom drugog svetskog rata sve budističke institucije u Japanu snažno podržavale državni militarizam, uz poneki individualni glas protesta. Srastanje religije i države, što je često pogubno za ovu prvu, bilo je potpuno. Za one koji bi više da saznaju o ovoj zanimljivoj temi, preporučujem knjigu Victoria Brian Daizen: Zen at War (2006).

Šri Lanka i Mjanmar
Prebacujemo se sada na Šri Lanku, koja je bila razdirana građanskim ratom između Sinhaleza (budista, 74% populacije) i Tamila (ne-budista, 18% populacije) od 1983. do 2009. Zbog njega je Šri Lanka često bila u vestima, uglavnom po raznim masakrima koje je učinila vojska ili terorističkim akcijama po gradovima koje su izvodili Tamili. Konflikt je nastao oko zvanične upotrebe tamilskog jezika i planskog menjanja etničke strukture oblasti sa dominantno tamilskim stanovništvom, a sve to još komplikovano generalnim siromaštvom i porastom broja stanovnika u određenim oblastima. No, važna komponenta je bilo i religijsko pitanje, jer je percepcija Sinhaleza bila da je budizam ugrožen. Tamili su (kada se ubroje i oni na jugu Indije) mnogobrojniji (da ne govorimo o čitavoj, dominantno hinduističkoj populaciji Indije=, a zahtevi za autonomijom shvaćeni su kao pretnja. Otuda ne čudi da je, kao i u Japanu, ideja o vojnom rešavanju problema imala punu podršku Sanghe. Naravno, koreni sukoba sežu mnogo dublje, u kolonijalno vreme, kada su Englezi po principu zavadi, pa vladaju, favorizovali Tamile, a degradirali Sinhaleze. Logično je da je posle dobijanja nezavisnosti Šri Lanke 1948. antagonizam ostao i samo čekao pogodan trenutak da se pretvori u požar.

Sve u svemu, rat je doneo 50.000 ubijenih i izbacio u prvi plan ekstremiste na obe strane, među njima i deo ekstremnih monaha, koji su organizovali demonstracije protiv “ustupaka Tamilima”. Budizam je bio instrumentalizovan, a angažovanje monaha u politici sve vidljivije, tako da su neki kao kandidati desničarskih partija ušli i u parlament kao poslanici. Monah-poslanik, kako to nadrealistički zvuči!

Važno pitanje za Šri Lanku bilo je i kako parirati aktivnostima različitih protestantskih misionara na konverziji budista u hrišćane. Sanga se i tu podelila. Jedni su tražili donošenje zakona o zabrani “neetičkih preobraćanja” (šta god to značilo), dok su drugi, po meni razumno, smatrali da se taj trend ne može zaustaviti zakonom, već podizanjem standarda najsiromašnijih budista, odakle se regrutuje najviše konvertita.

I tako, kada jednom otvoriš Pandorinu kutiju, povratka nema. Militantni deo Sanghe se i posle završetka građanskog rata 2009. okupio u organizaciji nazvanoj Bodu Bala Sena (Buddhist Power Force). Ovoga puta agresija se okrenula prema muslimanskoj zajednici. Pojedini monasi su demonstrirali, tražeći deportaciju svih muslimana sa ostrva i predvodili nasilne akcije prema lokalnim muslimanima. Značajnu ulogu u potpirivanju ksenofobije i mržnje imala je i desničarska partija Jathika Hela Urumaya (National Sinhala Heritage), među čijim osnivačima su bili i neki ugledni monasi, kasnije opet članovi parlamenta.

Na kraju Mjanmar i najskoriji sukob između Burmanaca i etničke manjine Rohinđa na granici sa Bangladešom. Radi se pre svega o etničkom pitanju, ali su i ovde neki monasi izbili u prvi plan. Pre svega Wirathu, koji je osvanuo na naslovnoj strani časopisa Time. U zapadnoj štampi smo videli izveštaje koji su, kao i obično crno-beli, jer novinari, a pogotovo njihovi čitaoci, nemaju vremena da se udubljuju u nijanse. Dakle, odmah je nadmoćnija strana proglašena za bad guys, dok su automatski oni sa druge strane postali mučenici i anđeli. No, kao što znamo iz istorije, pa i naše, ludaka ima na sve strane, a stradaju uglavnom nenaoružani civili. Stvar je samo u tome što jedni imaju više oružja, pa ubijaju više, a drugi manje, pa je i broj njihovih žrtava manje. Dakle, ne zbog toga što imaju mekšu dušu, već zato što nemaju šansu. Inače bi radili isto što i ovi prvi.

Monasi-mirovnjaci
No, monasi nisu samo troublemakeri. Naravno, mnogo je veći broj onih koji se beskompromisno zalažu za mir i lokalni i globalni. Kao primer, odabrao sam Nipponzan Myōhōđi monahe, koji su jedna mala frakcija mnogo veće budisitčke tradicije u Japanu, a koja se zove nićiren, po svom osnivaču. Odlučio sam se za njih, jer je koliko čujem nedavno naš manastir posetio upravo jedan od tih monaha. On i u vreme korone ide svetom kao neko ko ohrabruje mir i uzajamno poštovanje među ljudima, kao i brigu za ovu našu zajedničku planetu. Ova budistička tradicija poznata je po pagodama mira podignutim u raznim delovima sveta. Bilo bi lepo da jedna takva jednoga dana osvane i u Srbiji!

I da zaključim ovu pomalo tužnu, ali poučnu priču. U samom Pali kanonu ne postoji doslovno ni jedna jedina rečenica koja bi opravdala ni povređivanje, a kamoli ubijanje ljudi. Ali to nije sprečilo razne ideologe i druge usijane glave da na svoje ideje o proterivanju i istrebljenju stave budistički pečat. Verovali su da tako njihove pogrešne ideje dobijale na značaju i uverljivosti. I to je priča o ideološkoj manipulaciji koja ne zavisi od religije do religije, niti od civilizacije do civilizacije, već je univerzalno ljudsko “dostignuće”.

Uniqueness of Buddhism in the Ancient India Context

The time when Buddhism appeared at the religious stage of ancient India (6th-5th century B.C.E.) is known in history as a time of great social, economic and spiritual changes and innovations. From the point of view of history of religions, one of the main characteristics of that period was existence and fierce competition of the multitude of religious schools and traditions, advocating the whole spectrum of philosophical positions. In India, the main divide led between Brahmanism, a religion of Aryans based on the Vedic hymns, and the disparate group of thinkers called samanas, who opposed the allegedly revealed truth of the Vedas and were trying to find their own answers to traditional religious and philosophical questions. As a prominent sect of the samaṇas, Buddhism arose and had to find its proper place amongst Brahmins, Jains, Ājīvakas, agnostics, Lokayatas or materialists, and many others, as with time these main schools would often split into a multitude of sub-schools. To make this goal easier, the Buddha’s Dhamma was marked by several quite unique features, which made it stand out among the other traditions and gradually became very well established at the Indian soil. Thus, by the time of Asoka and some two hundred years after the Buddha’s parinibbāna, Buddhism turned out to be by far the most successful among the samaṇa schools.

Trying to understand what was so unique about the Buddha’s Dhamma, we can start with something that actually makes Buddhism unique in the whole history of religions and that is the notion of anattā. The Buddha very consequently denied the existence of a permanent self or soul, which is a shared fundamental tenet in all the other great religions. Based on his experiential insight, the Buddha understood that the man is just a complex construction of five constantly changing aggregates (khandha), without anything else that would be possible to designate as an unchanging core of a being. On the other hand, the doctrine of the self, ātman found its classical formulation in the early Upanishads1 and remained the topic of philosophical exploration, but also heated debates among various schools of Indian thought until today.

Thus Jains, for example, posited an existence of jīva or life principle, an immaterial and sentient type of substance, with multiple qualities. The main ones are consciousness, energy and bliss (satchitānanda). It is trapped by and therefore has to adapt to the dimensions of various physical bodies, but is able to attain liberation from bodily existence by harsh practice of a Jain ascetic. Once liberated, this entity rise to the top of the cosmos and stay there eternally in an immobile and perfected state.2

Buddhist answer to the idea of beings’ wondering from one to another life through the round of rebirth, until the final liberation, relies on the well known formula of dependent origination (paticca-samuppāda). The theory of an intermediate, fixed and eternal soul is replaced by the sequence of mental events constituting a being as a process, which doesn’t stop at the moment of death, but by the force of the law of causality extends uninterrupted into a new existence.

Because we crave, we implement strategies to satisfy the craving; because of these strategies, we tend to live in a certain way; because we live in a certain way, our consciousness gets established in that way and we are reborn accordingly; because we are reborn, we suffer, grow old and die in line with that new existence. This core driver is the mechanism that perpetuates saṁsāra.3

As the notion of soul is central for all other religions, in the same way is this schema central for the understanding of the Buddha’s Teachings. Therefore, only after fully comprehending dependent origination, says the Buddha, beings are able to stop their wondering through the otherwise endless sequence of births and deaths.4

Another unique Buddhist feature among religions would be that the Buddha was not at all concerned with the existence of some universal force or almighty God-creator and his alleged role in the salvation of humans from earthly existence.5 Instead, all the gods were considered just a new category of mortal beings, subject to the law of impermanence. Like with all other creatures, the way for them too from this repeating of the eternal same leads through following the path of personal deliverance, through investing one’s own effort and persistence. This view often puts modern researchers in a trouble of not being quite clear if Buddhism at all belong to the category of religion or not. Compared to other religions of its time, Buddhism was always more interested in practical questions of human life, than in theoretical ones, more in how than in what:

In contrast to the religion of the Brahmans, where salvation is the realization that the self of the individual is in fact identical with the very stuff of God, in the Buddha’s teachings there is no suggestion that samsāra and Nirvana are considered in ontological terms. They are, rather, described in terms of the continuity or cessation of experience, and the underlying cause and characteristics of that experience. So the emphasis on howthings are underlies the fundamental doctrinal teachings of Buddhism.6

Therefore, the Buddha was quite consistent in refusing to be involved in the debates and answer any metaphysical questions so enthusiastically entertained by the followers of other samana sects and traveling polemicists. One of the most well know of such cases includes actually one of his disciples, Venerable Malunkyaputta and his inquiry if the cosmos is eternal or not, does a Tathagata exist after death etc. The Buddha vehemently refuses to answer these questions, using this opportunity instead to elaborate on one of his most well known metaphors, the on of the man wounded bz the poisoned arrow.7

Another characteristic of the Buddha and his method of expounding the Teachings is that he would often take some term from the general Indian philosophical heritage and assign it a peculiar, characteristically Buddhist meaning. One of such examples is the notion of kamma, which was a widely discussed topic at the time of the Buddha, no matter if it was accepted or rejected. As part of the perennial Indian philosophical discourse, this notion in essence implied that our actions have their clear consequences. But this understanding as far as Vedic Brahmanism is concerned was related mainly to verbal and physical actions during multitude of religious rites, which supposedly bring coveted results. Based on such ideas, Brahmans had built up an elaborate edifice of sacrificial ritual, aimed at pleasing gods and achieving material and spiritual gains in this life, as well as favorite place in heaven in the next one for those who were initiating the sacrifice.

The Buddha made a radical departure from all these ideas, bringing a strong ethical element into the notion of kamma and positing our will, intention, as its main generator: “It is volition, bhikkhus, that I call kamma. For having willed, one acts by body, speech, or mind”.8 In dependence on the ethical quality of that will, its fruits were supposed to be pleasant or painful. Traces of such ethicization, hinted probably for the first time in Indian thought by this passage from the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad,9 but fully developed by the Buddha, are visible throughout the whole of his teachings.

On the completely opposite side to the Buddha’s view of a man as an agent who works on his own liberation from the round of suffering stands Ājīvakas’ fatalistic position. Namely, they saw universe and the process of transmigration of beings as an unavoidable, deterministic sequence of innumerable lives passing through progressively higher stages of existence, irrespective of their actions. Surely, at the end, they will be reborn as an Ājīvaka wanderer, which is the last stage od their development before final liberation.

Finally, the uniqueness of Buddhism compared to other competing traditions of ancient India is its vitality, capability to adapt to new historical, social and cultural environments as it had been expanding across Asia and recently throughout the whole world. Thus, Buddhism first became a pan-Asian and finally world religion. This enormous capacity to thrive in various conditions actually boils down to the universality of the Buddha’s message, its realism and reaching right to the core of any human being. On the other hand, majority of other competing traditions remained exclusively or predominantly Indian in its core and were significantly less successful in accommodating to the spiritual demands of the modern world.

Literature
Bhikkhu Brahmali (2013), Dependent Origination, transcript of the talk held given at the Buddhist Society of W.A. on April 17, 2009.
Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2012), The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha. Boston: Wisdom Publications.
Hamilton, Sue (1995), “Anattā: A Different Approach”, The Middle Way, Vol. 70, No. 1, May 1995, pp. 47-60.
Lamotte, Etienne (1988), History of Indian Buddhism from the origin to the Ṣaka era. Louvan: Universit Catholique de Lowain.
Olivelle, Patrick (1998), The Early Upaniṣads: Annotated Text and Translation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sarao, K.T.S; Long, Jeffrey (2017), Buddhism and Jainism. Dordrecht: Springer.
Warder, A:K. (2015), Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Notes
1 E.g. Chandogya Upanishad 6.8 ff (Olivelle, 1998). The Upanishads teach that self/atman and cosmos/Brahman are one, inferring that one’s ātman is not possible to separate from all that there is around us. This view is expressed by the well known dictum: “Tat tvam asi” (You are [all] that).
2 Sarao (2017), p. 594.
3 Bhikkhu Brahmali (2013), p. 15.
4 See Mahānidāna Sutta (DN II.55).
5 For the Buddha’s critique of the idea of a supreme, eternal and omnipotent being, see e.g. Mūlapariyāya Sutta (MN 1), Sandaka Sutta (MN 76), Cūla-Sakuludāyi Sutta (MN 79), Titthāyatanādi Sutta (AN 3:62), Kosala Sutta (AN 10:29) etc.
6 Hamilton (1995), p. 53.
7 Cūla-Malunkyaputta Sutta (MN 63).
8 Nibbedhika Sutta, AN 6:63 [Bodhi (2012), p. 963].
9 “A man turns into something good by good action and into something bad by bad action.” Olivelle (1998), p. 81.

Buddhism and the global environmental crisis

The problem
There is a short discourse, number 591 In the Udāna collection, which opens with the Buddha sitting outside on a dark night and with oil lamps lit in front of him. Many insects are circling around these lamps, attracted by the light. Some of them fly straight into the flames. Seeing that, the Buddha utters an “inspired utterance,” comparing those insects with people “attached to forms and sounds”, who head straight for their own destruction.

This short discourse can be easily interpreted as a parable of the global climate crisis, just this time humanity in general is heading for destruction of planetary proportions. Enchanted by a dream of an endless economic prosperity, people are unable to see what a catastrophe approaches and how close we are to our own extinction. Forerunners of that unprecedented era of environmental and then human suffering are such grave problems like greenhouse effect and global warming, natural resources depletion, thinning of the ozone layer, acid rains, deforestation etc.

According to the United Nation’s Environment Program report,2 the situation is really dramatic:

  • The global population will reach 8.9 billion in 2050, up from 6 billion in the year 2000.
  • Almost 80% of forests have been cleared so far.
  • Global warming will raise temperatures by up to 3.6°C, triggering a ‘devastating’ rise in sea level and more severe natural disasters.
  • There will be a billion cars by 2025. In 1945 there were only 40 million.
  • Global use of pesticides is causing up to five million acute poisoning incidents each year.
  • Global emissions of CO2 reached a new high of nearly 23 900 million tonnes in 1996 – nearly four times the 1950 total.
  • If present consumption patterns continue, two out of every three persons on Earth will live in water-stressed conditions by the year 2025.

Roots of the problem
In line with the Buddha’s claim of the leading role of the mind, the roots of our irrational behavior and the global crisis are in fact psychological. Thus, the environmental crisis is actually a crisis of our consciousness. Some leading factors triggering it are:

1. Greed of corporations and financial institutions, as well as individuals, especially business people and politicians.

2. To secure their social domination, they invest a lot of resources into instigating fear and anxiety among the general population around economy and jobs security, various kinds of terrorism or armed conflicts. Thus, various systems of surveillance are introduced under the pretext of national security.

3. Arrogance, producing national, racial, cultural and social antagonisms and tensions. Thus, nowadays we have “American exceptionalism”, Islamic holly war and white supremacy as some among many manifestations of the same idea of superiority.

4. Keeping all these three deadly influences in place is the fourth one, ignorance. Keeping people ignorant about the real situation, through applying two main strategies: hiding/denial of the facts and producing more and more sources of distraction. This lethal combination leads many people to apathy, skepticism and confusion.

The reckless consumer culture imposes ever-increasing demands for energy and natural resources, causing thus environment degradation. Not only transportation or electricity production, with the use of enormous quantities of fossil fuels, plays a role of a massive producer of the greenhouse effect. Existing model of industrial agriculture is responsible for even 32% of global carbon emission. A lion share is contributed here by the meat production industry, which is on top of that responsible for causing unnecessary animal suffering.

The common denominator behind all these factors is the illusion of the permanent self and imposing market logic on all domains of human activities. Thus, the idea is born that the only reasonable mode of behavior is to maximize one’s own interest at the expense of all others, by objectifying other people and turning them just to a means of one’s own or corporation’s ends. And that end is pursuing the illusion of an infinite growth. Thus, we put ourselves into a suicidal situation, which is maintained by three very powerful social forces: corporate system, political system and mass media.

Solution in general
Cittena niyyati loko”,3 says the Buddha. Therefore, the quality of the mind decides on the state of the world. Since our mind if gripped by materialism, greed and thirst for more and more sensual pleasures, political, economic and ecological state of the world is just a reflection of such mind. Contrary to all that, Buddhism advocates a friendly attitude towards nature and supports maintaining harmonious and mutually dependent relationship between plants, animals and people.

The whole Buddha’s life can be viewed as a lesson in nature-friendly living. He was born in the Lumbini park, where his mother on her way to the parental home because of premature labor pains. When he left home and started his life of a samana, he went into a forest to experiment with various ascetic practices. Six years later he was enlightened under the famous bodhi tree. During his 45-years long teaching career, whenever possible, he was inclined to spend his time in seclusion, in the forest, advising his disciples to do the same and stay away from various distractions. For such a forest-dwellers the Buddha says:

They do not sorrow over the past,
Nor do they hanker for the future.
They maintain themselves with what is present:
Hence, their complexion is so serene.
4

This attitude is clearly stated in various other suttas. For example, in the Dhammapada the Buddha praises living in the forest, understanding at the same time that they are not attractive to those obsessed with property and pleasures of the senses:

Forests are delightful,
but the worldlings find no delight in them;
only those who are free from passion will find delight in them,
for they do not seek sensual pleasures.

Finally, when the moment to die came, the Buddha again choose the place between two sal trees in the vicinity of Kusinara to lay down, despite the Ānanda’a suggestions to choose some more respectable city. Thus, he ended his life in the same natural environment as he started it 80 years earlier.

It is often said that the basis of the Buddhist world view is a law of causality and interdependence, exemplified by the chain of dependent co-arising (paticca samuppada). Translated into many practical situations, we can see that despite all our efforts to build comfortable, sometime luxurious environment for us and “conquer” the nature, we are not separated from the rest of our environment, but tightly interwoven, interrelated. And not just with our natural surroundings, but also we as human beings affect each other at the deepest level. When a nuclear disaster in Fukushima happened, leaked uranium didn’t stay in the Japanese territorial water, but actually polluted the whole Pacific Ocean. When massive transportation in Europe dramatically pollute the air, the gasses from truck and car exhaust do not stay in Europe, but pollute air globally. When China dispose of around 3.53 million metric tonnes of plastic yearly5 into its rivers, that plastic pollutes not only them, but all oceans.

Consequently, our and the suffering or our fellow beings, generated by great ignorance and attachment, becomes ever greater. In his formulation of the four noble truths the Buddha addressed this problem of human suffering as generated by greed and attachment, advising developing practice of compassion (karuna) and loving-kindness (metta) as a medicine. The clear moral examples of such attitude, which were meant probably for pedagogical reasons for the present and future Buddhists, were given in the collection of Jataka stories. There the Buddha in his innumerable previous lives was reborn as an animal or a tree, showing limitless compassion towards other beings who suffered. This expands also to a number of rules for monastics, ensuring their great care about the environment. Thus, traveling was prohibited during the rainy season, to make sure they do not destroy the crops walking across the fields. Or, they are prohibited to destroy any plant, which is probably a reflection of the strong influence of the ahimsa principle common for most of the Indian religious traditions.

Solution in particular: examples of individual teachings
Among the ancient Buddhist texts, it is the Aggañña Sutta, also rightfully called The Book of Genesis,6 that speaks about the issues of greed and suffering with regard to nature. The sutta presents three interrelated movements that indicate cosmological, environmental and societal development throughout the history. In the middle one, it explains the relationship between degradation of the human character and the degradation of the natural environment. Impelled by greed, beings have no concerns about the way their acts affect their surroundings. Hence, they loose primal luminosity and their bodies became coarser and coarser. With such solidification of the body, differences between them appeared and some became beautiful, the other ugly. Consequently, the conceit was conceived among the beautiful ones, and they started looking upon the ugly beings. All these changes were going in parallel with the degradation of the environment and worsening of the living conditions. This relationship between ecology and ethics continued to be one of the main motives in all Buddhist consideration on the environmental protection.

How much the Buddha valued nature, especially protection the existing ones and planting new trees is reflected in many suttas. For example, in the Vanaropa Sutta, he was asked by the deva about those who earn great merit. His answer was the following:

Those who set up a park or a grove,
The people who construct a bridge,
A place to drink and a well,
Those who give a residence:
For them merit always increases,
Both by day and by night.7

In the Dhammapada, the Buddha advised:

O’ Monks, cut down the forests of defilements.
But, do not cut down the trees.
Fear comes from the forests of defilements.8

For the humanity, unrestrained greed for sensual pleasures and reckless accumulation of wealth is like cutting the proverbial branch it is sitting on. Although humans are aware this course of behavior is unsustainable, greed still doesn’t allow them to abandon it. On the other hand, according to the Sigālovāda Sutta, careful resource management is highly advisable. Also, wealth should not be used for our own purpose only, but for the benefit of others too:

The wise man trained and disciplined
Shines out like a beacon-fire.
He gathers wealth just as the bee
Gathers honey, and it grows
Like an ant-hill higher yet.

With wealth so gained the layman can
Devote it to his people’s good.
He should divide his wealth in four
(This will most advantage bring).

One part he may enjoy at will,
Two parts he should put to work,
The fourth part he should set aside
As reserve in times of need.9

Excessive production of material goods, often poorly manufactured in a such way to break after some time and thus create necessity for another purchase is bad enough. But on top of that, what is really tragic is that under various influences, like fashion or social competing, people often dispose of perfectly good products, just to “keep up with fashion trends”, buying new clothes or a model of a cellphone advertised by some trendsetting magazines or social networks. In this way we cause double damage: deplete natural resources essential for the future generations (our sons and daughters) and at the same time we create enormous amounts of unnecessary waste. In the light of that fact, it is fascinating to read the following dialogue recorded in the Vinaya Pitaka:

King Udena spoke thus to the venerable Ananda:

“Did not our concubines come here, good Ananda? “

“Your concubines did come here, your majesty.”

” Did they not give anything to the honorable Ananda?”

“They gave me five hundred inner robes, your majesty.”

” But what can you, honourable Ananda, do with so many robes? “

“I will share them, your majesty, with those monks whose robes are worn thin.”

“But what will you do, good Ananda, with those old robes that are worn thin?”

“We will make them into upper coverings,’ your majesty.”

” But what will you do, good Ananda, with those upper coverings that are old?”

“We will make these into mattress coverings, your majesty.”

“But what will you do, good Ananda, with those mattress coverings that are old? “

“We will make them into ground coverings, your majesty.”

“But what will you do, good Ananda, with those ground coverings that are old? “

“We will make them into foot-wipers, your majesty.”

” But what will you do, good Ananda, with those foot-wipers that are old?”

“We will make them into dusters, your majesty.”

” But what will you do, good Ananda, with those dusters that are old?”

“Having torn them into shreds, your majesty, having kneaded them with mud, we will smear a plaster-flooring.”

Then King Udena, thinking: “These recluses, sons of the Sakyans, use everything in an orderly way and do not let things go to waste,” bestowed even another five hundred woven cloths on the venerable Ananda. Therefore, this was the first time that a thousand robes had accrued to the venerable Ananda as an alms of robes.”10

The way of practice as a solution
Knowing about strong advocacy of the Buddha’s teachings in favor of environment protection, it doesn’t come as a surprise that in this precarious situation for the whole world and the future of the humanity strong ecological movement crystallized, based on the principal idea of correspondence between internal ecology (morality) and the external one. This movement, so-called Green Buddhism, is just a smaller part of a wider phenomenon called Socially Engaged Buddhism. It emerged in the West in the 1960s and was in the full swing by the 1980, when Buddhist leaders were explicitly addressing the eco-crisis and incorporating ecological awareness in their Dhamma talks and written teachings:

In his 1989 Nobel Peace Prize speech, His Holiness the Dalai Lama proposed making Tibet an international ecological reserve. Vietnamese Zen monk and peace activist Thich Nhat Hanh invited his followers to join the Order of Interbeing, teaching Buddhist principles using ecological examples. Zen teachers Robert Aitken in Havaii and Daido Loori in New York examined the Buddhist precepts from an environmental perspective. Buddhist activist Joana Macy creatively synthesized elements of Buddhism and deep ecology, challenging people to take their insights into direct action. The Buddhist Peace Fellowship, founded in 1978, added environmental concerns to its early activist agenda.11

Aimed not only at addressing environmental and climate crisis, but at the personal insight too, Green Buddhism introduced new forms of a practice, by directly opposing devastation of nature reserves and animal habitats at various places. Thus, in Thailand, teak forests were being cleared massively for foreign trade. This caused massive flooding and landslides, causing a national wave of protests. They were joined by Buddhist monks in the countryside, with their ritual ordination of trees, as a symbolic gesture of solidarity with the forest in danger.

As Buddhist environmental activism spread, the “forest monks”, as they came to be known, formed an ethical front in the protest against overexploitation. Other monks got involved with activists to question economic development and its environmental impacts. Plastic bags, toxic lakes, and nuclear reactors were targeted by Buddhist leaders as detrimental influences on people’s physical and spiritual health. In Burma, Buddhists concerned about the environment drew attention to the impacts of a major oil pipeline and the decimation of tropical forests. In Tibet, the environmental impacts of Chinese colonization were documented and publicized by support groups in the West.12

All these considerations reflect close affinity between Dhamma and the environmental concerns. Based on this, several key principles in that relationship could be formulated, as signposts for our actions to prevent the catastrophe looming over our common future:

1. Reverence for life in any form. We must stop putting humans into some special position in the community of beings inhabiting this wonderful planet. All beings matter.

2. Our greatest happiness stems from helping others. Therefore, we need to give up our own attachments and help others. Altruism is in our genes. Led by that natural impulse, we need to help the marginalized among us that are usually hit the hardest by climate disruption.

3. Interconnection and interdependence. Leaving behind an illusion of a separate self, we should stop looking at others just as means to achieve our selfish goals. We can not feel and be better off in a world where everyone around us suffers. Our happiness, well-being and safe future is a common endeavor.

4. Renunciation and simplicity are the only remedy to climate disruption, and they should be strongly promoted. The best way is by a personal example. In the wider social context, this should be translated into an economy based on the principle of sufficiency, dedicated to qualitative growth, rather than ever-increasing production and consumption.

5. Buddhism as a social agent. The principles of Buddhism help us engage with life, not remove ourselves from it. The Buddha was actively engaged with his social and cultural contexts, and for Buddhism to have relevance today it must help people understand how to engage in today’s political and social context.13

Literature
Bodhi, Bhikkhu, Transl. (2000), The Connected Discourses of the Buddha. Boston, Wisdom Publications.
Gnanarama, Pategama (2012), And Approach to Buddhist Social Philosophy. Singapore, Buddhist and Pali College.
Horner, I. B. (Transl., 1963), The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka). London, Luzac & Company.
Kaza, Stephanie (2019), Green Buddhism: Practice and Compassionate Action in Uncertain Times. Boulder, Shambala.
Loy, David (2018), Ecodharma: Buddhist Teachings for the Ecological Crisis. Boston, Wisdom Publications.
Pandey, K.C. (2008), Ecological Perspectives in Buddhism. New Delhi, Readworthy.
Sarada Thero, Weragoda, Transl. (1993). Treasury of Truth: Illustrated Dhammapada. Taipei, CBBEF.
Stanley, John; Loy, David R.; Dorje Gyurme, Eds. (2009), A Buddhist Response to the Climate Emergency. Boston, Wisdom Publications.
Walshe, Maurice, Transl. (1995), The Long Discourses of the Buddha. Boston, Wisdom Publications.

Footnotes
1 Upāti Sutta
2 UNEP Global Environment Outlook 2000 report.
3 “This world is led by the mind…”, Citta Sutta, SN 1:62.
4 Bodhi (2000), Vanna Sutta (SN 1.10).
5 Source: https://www.condorferries.co.uk/plastic-in-the-ocean-statistics
6 Richard Gombrich, “The Buddha’s Book of Genesis?”, Indo-Iranian Journal, volume 35, issue 2-3 (1992), pp. 159-178.
7 Bodhi (2000), p. 122.
8 Vanaṃ chindatha mā rukkhaṃ, vanato jāyate bhayaṃ, Sarada (1993) verse, 283. p. 879.
9 Walshe (1995), p. 466.
10 Horner (1963), p. 404.
11 Kaza (2019), p. 66-67.
12 Ibid, p. 67.
13 Loy (2018), p.187.